The Increased Usage of Plastics in the Medical Industry

The Increased Usage of Plastics in the Medical Industry

From the earliest times of Mesoamericans to the modern times, the use of plastic has been employed to carry out the construction of various items all over the world. It has evolved tremendously to suit the requirements of the ever increasing demands of the human race. The use of plastic is extensively based on its durability and reliability amongst other qualities. Of all the construction materials available, plastic is the only substance which is used in a variety of forms.

Polymers have been of pivotal importance to humankind ever since 1600 B.C. With the invention of vulcanized rubber in the year 1839 and the discovery of polystyrene (PS) by an apothecary of German origin in the same year, there has been no looking back at the widespread utility of plastics around the world. Before commencing onto the advantages of using plastics in the world of Science and Medicine, you should know about the various kinds of plastic being utilized in this field Read more

How Plastics Have Shaped the Automobile Industry

Normally we only discuss the surface treatment of metal objects on this blog, but sometimes we also find the need to show how other technologies correlate to the one we are using.

green plastic
These objects can also be treated with surface treatment systems
plastic surface treatment
Plastic is used in many forms.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plastic is the most high performance substance used in the automobile industry today. Not only is it very light, but it is also as cost efficient as it is light and does not tax the engine. Estimates suggest that you can reduce your fuel consumption by 5-7% if you reduce the weight of your vehicle by 10%. Some of the other features that make this material appealing for automobile manufacturers are:

  • Recyclability
  • Minimal corrosion
  • Freedom to create innovative designs
  • Flexibility in the integration of components
  • Economical
  • Safe

The Various Kinds of Plastic Used in the Automobile Industry

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Fundamentals of surface activation using plasma flame technique

Use of flame for increasing the surface tension of a substrate and making it suitable for adhesion, printing and painting is probably one of the oldest methods of the surface treatment used in polymer, automotive and aircraft industry. Although with the advancement in technology other methods of surface treatment like corona treatment have emerged, most manufacturers still prefer flame treatment over other techniques.

What is Flame Treatment?

Plasma flamePlasma flame is generated by simply combusting a fuel (composed of long hydrocarbon chains) under controlled temperature and pressure conditions. The flame is used to modify the surface tension of the substrate without changing its composition and properties. Plasma flame generation is an adiabatic process in which the temperature is set to 1816°C. Along with improving the surface tension of a material, flame treatment is also used for improving the quality and reliability of polyolefin. Plasma flame oxidizes the surface of the material, forming a 10nm thick oxygen film on the surface of the substrate, thus turning it into a hydrophilic material. This is the reason that plasma flame treated substances have better wettability than corona treated substrates. Another factor which makes plasma flame a more reliable option for surface treatment than corona is the composition of plasma flame.  Plasma flame is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of different functional groups which modify the chemical properties of the material being treated. Read more

Adhesive Bonding – Techniques and Considerations

Adhesive Bonding – Techniques and Considerations

A technical synopsis of different methods of adhesive joining

Adhesives are considered as one of the most reliable options for joining two substrates together. Unlike other methods of bonding, adhesives keep the geometry and properties of the materials intact. The technique has considerably matured over the years and every industry relies on adhesive bonding to produce high quality products.

Techniques

Most substrates like metals and polymers are not wettable by adhesives and require some pre-adhesion treatment. There are a number of surface preparation techniques for making materials suitable for adhesions. Some of the commercially used techniques are:

1. Chemical Treatment

This is one of the oldest methods of surface preparation. Usually strong acids are used as surface treatment agents. Acids form different functional groups on the surface of a substrate thus increasing the surface energy of the material. Most small scale industries rely on this adhesion technique, as it is considerably cost effective than other techniques.

2. Plasma Treatment

Unlike chemical treatment, plasma treatment does not modify the physical and chemical properties of a material. Plasma consists of high energy ionized particles. When a material to be treated is placed in a plasma medium, plasma particles transfer their energy to the surface particles of the material, thus increasing its surface tension and making it ideal for adhesion. This technique requires a plasma treatment plant for plasma generation. Automotive industry relies heavily on plasma treatment technique for adhesive bonding.

3. UV Treatment

This technique is generally used for preparing metallic surfaces for adhesion. In this technique the surface tension is increased by exposing a material to intense beam of UV radiations. The method requires expensive equipment therefore large scale industries like aircraft manufacturing industry, relies on this method of surface preparation.

Considerations

For effective and reliable adhesive bonding, following considerations should be kept in mind:

1. Service Temperature

It is the temperature at which an adhesive can maintain its maximum strength. Service temperature varies with the type of adhesive. For most adhesives service temperature can range from 65oC to 230oC. Adhesives with exceptionally high temperature resistance have low peel strength.

2. Curing Temperature

Curing temperature is the point at which an adhesive starts hardening and performing the bonding action. Although every adhesive has its own curing temperature, it can range from 120oC to 180oC. Factors like type of equipment, type of material and energy economy directly influence the curing temperature of adhesives.

3. Film Weight

Adhesive film should not be ticker than 400g/m2. Although thickness of the film depends on the substrate type, thicker films have low resistance. Moreover thick adhesive films can squeeze out from the joints if the pressure is increased during heating.

4. Compatibility

Adhesives serve as an intermediate layer between two substrates. In order to join two substrates of different nature (for example, plastic and metal), the adhesive chosen should be compatible with both of the materials.

Due to advanced equipments and improved quality adhesive bonding has become one of the most reliable joining techniques.

Plasma Etching System

Technical synopsis and benefits of plasma etching method

In integrated chips fabrication, chemical etching refers to the process of removal of metal traces from the substrate. The etching agent dissolves metal, leaving behind the print of circuit layout. There are two kinds of etching; wet etching and dry etching.

Wet etching involves the use of concentrated acids as enchants. On the other hand dry etching is a technique in which no liquid chemical is used. One of the most commonly used etchants in chemical free etching is plasma. Read more

An Introduction to Adhesive Bonding

Most industries rely on techniques like screwing, soldering and welding for joining components together. Another reliable method of unification is adhesive bonding. Contrary to the general perception, this technique is not only used to join plastic parts, but automotive, ship and aircraft manufacturing industries have also been using this technique for years to join metallic parts together. Moreover, modern adhesive equipments and innovations have made this unification technique more reliable than ever. Unlike welding or soldering, the equipment used in this technique is considerably cost effective. Manufacturers are also using hybrid bonding techniques by combining the use of adhesives with other joining techniques to produce high quality products. Read more